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Certificate of Ancestral Lands Title

A title formally recognizing the rights of ICCs/IPs over their ancestral lands.

Certificate of Stewardship

An agreement entered into by and between the government and individuals or families actually occupying or tilling portions of the forestlands covered by community based forest management agreement.

charcoal

A product obtained from the destructive distillation or thermal degradation of wood.

check

A separation of the wood along the fiber direction that usually extends across the rings of annual growth and commonly resulting from stresses set up in wood during drying.

chip

A small fragment of wood chopped or broken by cuts by a planer, chipper, mechanical hog, or hammer mill.

clearcutting

The removal of all timber species on a designated forest stands during one cutting season; usually prescribed for harvesting of plantations.

climate amelioration

The positive influence of forest on the climate change.

climate change

A condition attributed directly or indirect to human activity that alters the composition of global atmosphere and which is, in addition to natural climate variability, observed over comparable time periods.

climate system

The totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.

climate variability

Variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviation, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal process within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forces (external variability).

climax forest

The final stage of successional development on a forest site under specific climatic and other environmental conditions, leading to a more or less stable equilibrium underlying only minor changes in species composition.

closed broadleaved plantation forest

Forest plantation where the crown cover is greater or equal to 70% of the area.

closed forest

Where the trees in various storeys and the undergrowth cover a high proportion (>40 percent) of the ground and do have a continuous dense grass layer. They are either managed or unmanaged forests, primary or in an advances state of reconstruction and may have been logged over one more or more times, having kept the characteristics of forest stands, possibly with modied structure and composition. Typical examples of tropical closed forest formations include tropical rainforest and mangrove forest.

co-dominant trees

Trees with crowns forming the general level of crown cover and receiving full light from above but comparatively little from sides.

co-production agreement

An agreement entered into by and between a qualified person's and the government for the former to develop, utilized and manage consistent with the principle of sustainable development, a specified portion of the forestland.