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closed forest

Where the trees in various storeys and the undergrowth cover a high proportion (>40 percent) of the ground and do have a continuous dense grass layer. They are either managed or unmanaged forests, primary or in an advances state of reconstruction and may have been logged over one more or more times, having kept the characteristics of forest stands, possibly with modied structure and composition. Typical examples of tropical closed forest formations include tropical rainforest and mangrove forest.