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Resin obtained from apitong (Dipterocarpus grandiflorus) and panau (Dipterocarpus gracilis)


Perennial giant grass belonging to the family Poaceae that is either erect of climbing. Generally used for weaving, handicraft manufacture, and house construction.

bamboo formation

Forest on which more than 75 percent of crown cover consists of bamboo or palm species.

Synonyms - palm formation
bare area

Land not covered by (semi-) natural or artificial cover. This includes among others, sand dunes, river wash, lahar-laden areas and rocky or stony areas.

Synonyms - openland

All tissues outside the wood (xylem) cylinder.

basal area

The sum of the outside bark cross-sectional area at breast height or above buttress as the case may be of all trees in a given area.

beach forest

A narrow strip of woodland along the sandy and gravelly beaches of the seacoast dominated by Terminalia catappa, Casuarina equisetifolia, Barringtonia asiatica, Soneratia caseolaris, Acacia farnesiana and Erythrina orientalis.


Curved wood formed by steaming or boiling the wood and bending it to form.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

The measure of dissolved oxygen required to biologically decompose organic matter in water.

Synonyms - BOD

Variability among the living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems;

Synonyms - biological diversity
biological resource

Includes genetic resources, organism or parts thereof, population, or any other biotic component of ecosystem with actual or potential use or value to humanity.


The amount of living matter expressed in terms of weight per unit area or per unit volume of water. It is the total mass of life in an ecosystem at any given time. It is an indicator of the productivity of the ecosystem.


A regional ecosystem with distinct assemblage of vegetation, animals, microbes and physical environment often reflecting a certain climate and soil.


Research, collection, and utilization of biological and genetic resources for purposes of applying the knowledge derived therefrom solely for commercial purposes.

Synonyms - biological prospecting

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.