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Term Main definition
biotic factor

The influence exerted on a habitat by the plant and animal organisms that inhabit an area. Biotic influence includes grazing, tramping, manuring, predation, parasitism, migration and territorial behavior patterns of animals.

bird's eye

Small localized area in wood with the fibers indented and otherwise contorted to form few to many circular or elliptical figures remotely resembling bird's eyes o tangential surface.


In grading lumber, anything marring the appearance of wood.


Bulges on the surface of panel products due to local bond failures.


An area bounded by one-half (1/2) minute of latitude and one-half (1/2) minute of longitude, containing approximately eighty-one hectares (81 has).

Synonyms - meridional block
board foot

A unit of measurement represented by a board 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide, and 12 inches long.

(12 inches = 1 foot)


The stem or trunk of a tree of size sufficient to yield lumber, veneer or poles.


A short section of tree trunk or limb; a short log of a length suitable for peeling in a lathe for veneer.

botanical garden

Establishment where a collection of wild flora is maintained for recreational, educational, research, conservation of scientific purposes.


A unedged lumber produced from a log, which has been live-sawn without passing through the edger and stickered back into its approximate original form.


The distortion of a piece of lumber in which there is a deviation in a direction perpendicular to the flat face from straight line from end to end of the piece.

brash center

The defective core of a log, characterized by abnormal brittleness, which occurs in certain species of tropical hardwoods.

Synonyms - brittle heart
broadleaved forest

Forest with predominance (more than 75 percent of tree crown cover) of trees of broadleaved species.

brown rot

Any decay in which the attack concentrates on the cellulose and associated carbohydrates rather that on the lignin, producing a light to dark brown friable residue.


An area characterized by discontinuous cover of shrubby and noon wood vegetation including grasses.