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Term Main definition
forage production

The propagation of palatable and improved grasses, legumes and fodder crops for the consumption of grazing animals.

foreign assistance

It can come in the following forms:

  • Grants: these are types of assistance that do not have to be repaid and usually comes in the form of technical assistance such as advisory services, capacity building or pre-investment studies.
  • Loans: carry terms such as long maturities & interest rates
foreign-assisted project

A foreign-assisted project, sometimes referred to as Official Development Assistance (ODA) project, is a project partly or wholly funded from foreign sources either through soft loans or grants (financial or in-kind), or a combination thereof, on the basis of a loan or grant agreement, Memorandum of Understanding, Note Verbale, or similar contracts/ instruments entered into by the Government of the Philippines (GOP) with a foreign financing or donor institution or country.


Land with an area of more than 0.5 hectare and tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10%. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters at maturity in situ. It consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground or open formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10%. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes, which have yet to reach a crown density of more than 10% or tree height of 5 meters are included under forest.

forest biological diversity

The variability among forest living organisms and the ecological processes of which they are part. It includes diversity in forest within species, and ecosystems and landscapes.

forest biome

Reflects the ecological and physiognomic characteristics of the vegetation and broadly corresponds to climatic regions of the earth. In this document, it is used in reference to boreal, temperature and tropical forest biomes.

forest charges

Levies imposed by the government on naturally-growing timber and other forest products cut or harvested by the licenses and from plantations established by compliance with Timber License Agreement (TLA) reforestation obligations. The rate of which is provided under Section 70, 71 and 72 of R.A. 716, otherwise known as the Forest Charges Law.

forest concession

Any tract of forestland under license agreement, lease, or permit.

forest cover

Natural and man-made forests, including forests within wetlands and built-up areas.

forest degradation

Changes within the forest, whether natural or human-induced, that negatively affect the structure of function of the stand or site, and thereby lower the capacity to supply products or services resulting to a degraded forest.

forest disturbance

Any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, of the physical environment.

forest ecosystem

A dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities and their abiotic environment interacting as a functional unit, where trees are a key component of the system. Humans, with their cultural, economic and environmental needs are integrated.

forest fragmentation

(1) Break up of a forest landscape by various forest and non-forest uses.

forest improvement

Changes within the forest, which positively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby increase the capacity to supply products and services.

forest influences

All the modifying effects of forest cover on the environment, particularly on water supplies, soil, and microclimate.